Author’s Instructions

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Published by Africa science in collaboration with the laboratory of sustainability – the University of Montreal

Edited by: Blaise Nguendo Yongsi

Print ISSN: 1920-8693
Online ISSN: 1920-860X
Frequency: Two times a year

Publications Principles

Submission guidelines

I. Publication Principles

International Journal of Advanced Studies and Research in Africa (IJASRA) publishes articles of authors from any part of the world, provided that articles deal with Africa issues. It publishes scholarly articles that are theoretical of archival value as well as critical reviews of classical subjects and topics of current interest. The contents of IJASRA are peer-reviewed and archival.

Authors should consider the following points:

  • Papers submitted for publication must advance the state of knowledge, and must cite relevant prior work.
  • The length of a submitted paper should be commensurate with the importance, or appropriate to the complexity, of the work.
  • Authors must convince both peer reviewers and the editors of the scientific value of a paper; the standards of proof are higher when extraordinary or unexpected results are reported.
  • Because replication is required for scientific progress, papers submitted for publication must provide sufficient information to allow readers to perform similar experiments or calculations and use the reported results. Although not everything need be disclosed, a paper must contain new, useable, and fully described information. Authors should expect to be challenged by reviewers if the results are not supported by adequate data and critical details.

II. Submission Guidelines

What to submit


Original research papers, methodological or field notes, technical reports and short communications in all aspects of Humanities, Social Sciences, Health & Life Sciences, and Applied Sciences, can be submitted on the understanding that the work is neither previously published nor under simultaneous consideration by any other journal or publication outlet. Book reviews are also accepted.



International Journal of Advanced Studies and Research in Africa is a refereed journal. Manuscripts are reviewed by a minimum of two qualified academics/professionals chosen by the Editor-In-Chief according to their expertise within the subject area. To ensure fairness, the review process is anonymous. Based on the comments of the referees, the Editor-In-Chief makes the final decision as to whether a paper will be published, returned to the author for revision and resubmission, or declined. Referees are asked to bring comments on comprehensibility and on the significance of the paper to other disciplines.



International Journal of Advanced Studies and Research in Africa welcomes papers written either in standard French or in standard English. Since the Journal serves a multidisciplinary readership, articles should serve multidisciplinary or multi-institutional areas of interest, and authors are requested to write their papers in a manner and style that is intelligible to specialists and non-specialists alike. As a matter of consequence, jargon is to be avoided.

Format and style


Manuscripts should be typed on A4 paper using Tw Cen MT type face (font) with 11 point type in word format. Authors are strongly invited to use this appropriate template. Template file.



If the second point of the above principles is far to be attained, articles should not exceed 6 500 words in length. More speculative pieces would be considerably shorter.

Manuscript Organization


A – Original research articles
The following points are to be considered (details on any point are given below):

  • Title
  • Author names
  • Abstract
  • Key words
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results and Discussions
  • Conclusion
  • Endnotes
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

NB: All figures, tables, photographs, mathematical/chemical/physical equations, and other
music/philosophic/literature expressions shall be embodied in the text.

  1. Title: The title should be concise but informative, and contain the major key words. Abbreviation is forbidden in the title.
  2. Author names: authors should furnish the following information: the name(s) and title(s) of the author(s); the position, affiliation, and contact details of each author; and the author to whom all correspondence should be addressed.
  3. Abstract: Provide two abstracts: one in English and one in French, about 350 words in length each. Abstract must be structured with the following subheadings;
    • Background and Purpose: In two or three sentences, explain the rationale or importance of the study topic and state a precise study question or purpose.
    • Methods: State the methodology used to answer the study question. Include information on the study design, setting, patients, interventions, outcome measures, and analyses, as appropriate.
    • Results: Summarize the central findings of your study, along with data and statistical details such as p values and confidence intervals where appropriate. Be sure that information provided in the abstract matches that in main article.
    • Conclusion or learning objectives: Summarize the implications and/or limitations of your findings, being careful to address the study question directly and to confine your conclusions to aspects covered in the abstract. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings.
  4. Keywords: Please, provide up to 5 key words or short phrases that will assist indexers in cross-indexing the article and also help retrieval from computer databases. Key words or short phrases should be sufficient to describe the content of the text.
  5. Introduction: The purpose(s) of the study should be clearly stated. The rationale for the study should be summarized and pertinent background material outlined. Give strictly pertinent references only, and do not review the subject extensively. Do not include findings or conclusions. In short, should summarize relevant research to provide context, and explain what findings of others, if any, are being challenged or extended.
  6. Materials and methods: This section should describe the methodology (study design, setting, patients or individuals, interventions, outcome measures, and analyses, as appropriate) in sufficient detail to leave the reader in no doubt as to how the results are derived.
    • Ethics considerations: When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the committee on human experimentation of the institution in which the experiments were done or in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. Do not use names of patients, initials, or hospital numbers, especially in any illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animal subjects, indicate whether the institution's or the national research council's guide for, or any national law on, the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.
    • Statistics: Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence interval). Avoid sole reliance on statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of p value, which fails to convey important quantitative information. References for study design and statistical methods should be made to standard works (with pages stated) when possible rather than to papers where designs or methods were originally reported. Specify any general computer programmes used. When data are summarized in the Results section, specify the statistical methods used for analyzing them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument and to assess its support. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid non-technical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as 'random' (which implies a randomizing device), 'normal,' 'significant,' 'correlations,' and 'sample.' Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols used.
  7. Results: The results should be presented in logical sequence in the text:, Tables, and Figures. Repetitive presentation of the same data in different forms should be avoided. Results must be statistically analyzed where appropriate.
  8. Discussion: Data given in the results section should not be repeated here. This section should emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and conclusions that follow from them. Highlight the important/major findings first, then highlight the less-important findings. Present the implications of the findings and the limitations of the study. Relate the observations to other relevant studies. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study, but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by your data. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. The Discussion may also include an evaluation of methodology and of the relationship of new information to the existing body of knowledge in the field.
  9. Conclusion: The conclusion should be consistent with - and completely supported by - data in the text.
  10. Endnotes: All manuscripts shall use endnotes instead of footnotes. All endnotes should be kept to a minimum, and shall be numbered consecutively throughout the text (identified by a superscript numeral placed at the end of the sentence, before the full stop), and be presented at the end. They should be organized sequentially, i.e. according to their appearance in the text.
  11. Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements should not exceed 100 words, and only persons or grants that have made substantive contribution to the study or preparation of manuscript should be included. Persons who have contributed intellectually to the paper, but whose contributions do not justify authorship, may be named and their function or contribution described.
  12. Conflict of interest: Authors must declare whether or not there is any competing financial interests in relation to the work described. This information must be included at this stage and will be published as part of the paper. Conflict of interest should also be noted on the cover letter and as part of the submission process
  13. References: References should be numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text. Authors are responsible for the accuracy, layout, and presentation of their references, and for compiling the typescript in the Journal's house style. References cited in the text must appear in the Reference list; conversely each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text. References shall adhere to the following style:

    A : References in the text

    • For a single author, cite the last name and year of publication. Example: (Wilson 2007)
    • For two joint authors, enclose both last names and year of publication. Example: (Wilson and Davis, 2008)
    • For three authors or more, cite the first author last name plus et al., and the year of publication. Example: (Wilson et al. 2008)
    • If the author's name is in the text, put the date in parentheses. Example: According to Mbakob (2001),

    B : References in the list

    These references follow the acknowledgements in a section headed ''REFERENCES''.


    • For one author: 

    Smith AB. The vitality of cells. New York: University press, USA, 1961; 235 p.

    • For multiple authors:

    Smith AB, Wright M, Wolfgang P. Tropical Diseases. Cambridge: University press, United kingdom, 2003; 235 p.

    • In a collection (chapter in a book)

    Heird WC, Kohl W. Aspects of Nuclear Molecules. In Young D, Weiss M, Hoffen L (eds). Modern Physics. Hamburg: Dorf Publications, 1998, 23-35.

    • For an edited book (Compiler, Editor):

    Nguendo Yongsi HB, Bryant RC (eds). Visages et defis des principales villes camerounaises. Montréal: Université de Montréal, 2008, 210 p.


    • Sango Malo P. Climate change and innovative practices in Agriculture. Makerere University - Nairobi, Department of Agricultural sciences, PhD dissertation, 2009, 135 p.

    Scholarly journals

    • For one author

    Nguendo Yongsi H B. Wastewater disposal practices: an ecological risk factor for health in young children in developing societies. Research Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2009, 4 (1): 26-41.

    • For two or three joint authors:

    Nguendo Yongsi H B,Bryant C, Pirot F. Contribution des SIG à l'analyse du paysage urbain d'une métropole d'Afrique tropicale humide (Yaoundé – Cameroun). Revue des sciences régionales du Canada, 2007, 30 (1) :133-153.

    • For more than three authors:

     Lindblom GB, Ahren J, Changalucha R, et al. Campylobacter jejuni/coli and enterotoxigenic

    Escherichia coli (ETEC) in faeces from children and adults in Tanzania. Scand. J. Infect. Dis.

    1995, 27:589-593.

    Published Proceedings paper

    • Sack DA. Bacteriological and clinical variation of acute diarrheal disease. In: Mazumder DNG, Chakraborty AK, Kumar AK (Eds). Proceedings of the 8th National Conference on Communicable Diseases. Calcutta: All-India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, 1980, 89-93.

    Corporate Author

    • World Health Organization. Scientific Working Group. Rotavirus and other viral diarrhoeas. Bull World Health Organ ,1980, 58:183-98.

    Periodicals (magazines)

    • Caldero LH. ''The wonderful land'' Monthly review, March 1rst, 1990, pp. 2-5


    • Lansana Touré. Interview. Fouta Djalon, Guinea, October 12, 2001


    • United Nations Population Fund (UNPF). 2007. State of world population 2007- Unleashing the potential of urban growth. [Accessed 27th Augustat] 2001
  14. Quotations:Within paragraphs, these should be used sparingly, identified by double quotation marks. Paragraph quotations must be in italics, with an additional one line space above and below.
  15. Electronic figures, tables and illustrations : Artworks must be supplied in electronic format. Adobe CS and Corel-DRAW are ideal for printing. Photographs and artwork in color must be supplied at high resolution (at least 300 dpi) for good quality reproduction, as separate files, in PNG (preferably) or JPEG format. Fonts to be used are: Tw cen MT, Arial or Helvetica. Figures must be numbered consecutively as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc, and tables should be numbered consecutively as Table I, Table II, etc. Photographs and others illustrations should be numbered as Photograph A, Photograph B, etc.

    * Graphs should be in clearly visible form so that it may become easy to redraw.

    * Don't create columns in tables.

  16. Captions: All illustrations must be accompanied by a caption, which should include the figure number, and eventually an acknowledgement to the holder of the copyright. It is the author responsibility to ensure that the real permissions are obtained.
  17. Spacing and punctuations: There should be one space (not two) between sentences; one space before unit terms (e.g. 5 kg, 5 cm, 5 ml); no space before % or ° (e.g. 5%, 23°C, 26°10'S). Thousands/millions are marked with a space, not a comma (e.g. 1 000, 1 000 000). Ranges are expressed with an extended hyphen, not with a short hyphen (e.g. 3–5 km).
  18. Abbreviations, Units and measures: Abbreviations should be used carefully, and should be defined at their first use unless they are very familiar (e.g. DNA, E. coli). The significance of statistical tests should be written in the form P < 0.001, or 'n.s.' for 'not significant'.
    Units should conform to the SI convention and be abbreviated accordingly. Metric units and their international symbols are used throughout, as is the decimal point (17.3).
  19. Author note: A note on the author is required. This should contain the author address, professional organization, telephone number and e.mail.

B – Methodological or Research Notes

These articles explore a methodological or field issue. They should be short and concise, and contain the following sections: Title page, Abstract (less than 200 words), Key words (up to three), Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (these two may be combined). The length should not exceed 3000 words; total number of tables and figures no more than 3, and references no more than 20.

C – Book reviews

IJASRA publishes reviews of books relevant to all fields of human and natural with an African focus. If a seminal work is deemed to merit special attention, Book Review Essays will be considered but must be approved by the Book Review Editor. A list of Books Received is published in each issue of the journal, and those interested in reviewing specific titles should contact the Book Review Editor to ensure their availability. Review suggestions are encouraged and may be forwarded for consideration. Submissions may be in French or English.

Format: Book reviews should cover three major themes: (i) a description of the contents and organization, (ii) a substantive analysis of the work, (ii) and they should endeavor to provide a critique. Book reviews should not contain references or lengthy direct quotations. Citations are permissible in Review Essays. Book reviews will not be returned to the author for proofing, however, they may be subject to editing for style, clarity and length. Normally, they should be no more than 1000 words in length.

D – Case Reports

They should not exceed 2000 words; total number of tables and figures no more than 4, and no more than 25 references. The manuscript must contain the following sections: Title page, Abstract (less than 200 words), Key words, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, References. Provide tables and/or figures if necessary. The reported cases should contain some special features not previously described.

Manuscript preparation


Manuscript for consideration must adhere to the following format Template file. Download this template on your computer, then copy sections from your manuscript and paste them on appropriate sections in the template. Do it step by step i.e. Title page, author names, abstracts, keywords, introduction, etc.

Failure to adhere to this format may result to manuscript rejection.



All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content of the article and has consented to be an author. Thus, authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions to: (a) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data; (b) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (c) final approval of the version to be published. Conditions (a), (b), and (c) must all be met. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is also not sufficient for authorship. Any parts of an article critical to its main conclusions must be the responsibility of at least one author. A paper with corporate (collective) authorship must specify the key persons responsible for the article; others contributing to the work should be recognized separately (see 'Acknowledgements').

Conflict of interest


In order to help readers form their own judgments of potential bias, authors must declare whether or not there is any competing financial interests in relation to the work described. This information must be included in their cover letter and in the conflict of interest section of their manuscript. In cases where the authors declare a competing financial interest, a statement to that effect is published as part of the article. If no such conflict exists, the statement will simply read that the authors have nothing to disclose.

NB: Competing interests are defined as those of a financial nature that, through their potential influence on behavior or content, or from perception of such potential influences, could undermine the objectivity, integrity or perceived value of a publication. They can include:

(i) funding: Research support (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through this publication.

(ii) Employment: Present or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through this publication.

(iii) Personal financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies that may gain or lose financially through publication; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication.

Examples of declarations are:

  1. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
  2. Conflict of interest: Dr Inoussa's work has been funded by the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD). He has received compensation as a member of the scientific advisory board of Biomerieux laboratory and owns stock in the company.
  3. Conflict of interest: Pr Bouraouf has consulted for Institut Pasteur and received compensation.

Covering Letter


When submitting a manuscript, authors should furnish a separate Covering letter including a declaration that the research material in the paper submitted to the Journal has neither been published elsewhere nor is being considered elsewhere for publication. It should also include a paragraph summarizing briefly the nature of the contribution made by each of the authors listed, along the lines as stated above (authorship section) . This is an example:

A.B. was the project leader; C.D and E.F. were responsible for conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data; most of the experiments were done by G.H; conceptual contributions as well as samples and calculations were performed by IJ, KL, MN; and OP has drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content.

Finally, the corresponding author should confirm that each named author has read and approved the manuscript submitted for consideration.


Authors publishing in IJASRA are asked to sign a Copyright Form. In signing the form, it is assumed that the author or authors have obtained permissions to use any copyrighted or previously published material. All authors must read and agree to the conditions outlined in the form, and must sign the form. Articles will not be published until a signed form has been received.

Submission of Manuscript


Manuscript for consideration shall preferably be submitted electronically to the editors, along with the covering letter and the copyright form at the following e-mail address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. (add "Manuscript Submission for IJASRA" as the subject).

Peer-review policy


International Journal of Advanced Studies and Research in Africa has adopted a double-blind review policy, i.e. both the reviewer and the author remain anonymous. This is advantageous in the sense that (i) author anonymity prevents any reviewer bias based on, for example, an author's country of origin or previous controversial work; (ii) articles written by renowned authors are considered on the basis of the content of their papers, rather than on the author's reputation.

All contributions that are selected for peer-review are sent to at least one, but usually two or more, independent reviewers. To save time for authors and peer-reviewers, only those papers that seem most likely to meet our editorial criteria are sent for formal review. Those papers judged by the editors to be of insufficient general interest are rejected without external review.

Thus, the editors make a decision based on the reviewers' advice, from among several possibilities:

    • Accept, with or without editorial revisions.
    • Invite the authors to revise their manuscript to address specific concerns before a final decision is reached.
    • Reject, but indicate to the authors that further work might justify a resubmission.
    • Reject because of lack of novelty, insufficient conceptual advance, etc.


1. Reviewers' identities are not revealed to authors, except when reviewers specifically ask to be identified. Unless they feel strongly, however, it is preferable that reviewers remain anonymous throughout the review process and beyond. We ask reviewers not to identify themselves to authors without the editor's knowledge. If they wish to reveal their identities while the manuscript is under consideration, this should be done via the editor, or if this is not practicable, we ask authors to inform the editor as soon as possible after the reviewer has revealed his or her identity to the author.

2. Selecting peer reviewers: Reviewer selection is critical to the publication process, and we base our choice on many factors, including expertise, reputation, and specific recommendations.

Manuscript Review and Publication Process

  • Upon reception of the manuscript, a preliminary review is done and the author is notified within a week or so if his/her paper is acceptable for further consideration
  • Once the reference process begins, we expect to respond to the author within four to six weeks with the review report.
  • Once the review report is available and the paper requires corrections, revised version of the paper in line with reviewers' comments shall be turned in by the author electronically within 30 days.
  • Depending on the extent of revision, a final decision shall be made within one to four weeks.
  • Should the paper be accepted, the authors shall be asked to pay a processing fee. For details, click here Downloading charges.
  • At this stage, the author shall be required to sign a copyright agreement with International Journal of Advanced Studies and Research in Africa.
  • Articles accepted for publication will be published on a 'first-come', first-served' basis.
  • On publication, the author shall receive a copy of his/her paper (in PDF format).



Authors will receive provisional page proofs electronically as PDF (Portable Document Format) files. These must be reviewed and returned promptly to the Editor-in-chief. Proofs not returned within a reasonable time period (72 hours) may be delayed and postponed for the next issue. It is important to note that substantial changes mate at proof stage will be charged to the author(s).

Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read the PDF. This software can be downloaded from the following website: This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen and printed out in order for any corrections to be added.


Frequency of publication and indexing information


The journal is published in two issues (August, December) a year. It is indexed or abstracted by the major international indexing systems, including the current contents: Google scholar